Graduate and post-graduate students typically complete advanced coursework in exercise science, kinesiology and clinical psychology. A one-year internship through a program approved by the American Psychological Association (APA) may be an additional requirement for graduation. Continuing education and training is available through several professional organizations, including the APA and the Association for Applied Sport Psychology, once state licensing or certification as a psychologist is obtained.
The answer is simple: Executive coaches offer seemingly quick and easy solutions. CEOs tell me that what they fear most about psychotherapy is not the cost in dollars but the cost in time. A coaching engagement typically lasts no more than six months. Psychotherapy, by contrast, is seen as a long-term treatment; people joke that it takes six months for therapist and patient just to say hello. What’s more, therapy requires a greater time commitment than the standard 50-minute sessions; it also involves travel to and from the therapist’s office, taking even more time away from work.
Sports have always been a big part of my life and culture, so it is a great fit for me personally to be involved in a profession that allows me to make an impact in areas for which I have a true passion. I also enjoy the fact that I am able to address both performance enhancement and mental skills training while still being able to offer assistance to athletes and performers who are stuck, or are experiencing issues that hinder their performance or life satisfaction. Additionally, compared to other branches of psychology, sports psychology utilizes many techniques and interventions that require very active participation from both the psychologist and the client. That is another factor that is very fitting with my approach.

Skill most commonly used to help individuals who experience arousal at a level that is not effective (i.e., too high or too low) for optimal performance. These techniques can be used for anxiety, stress, and anger management. Common treatments include: (a) breathing exercises (e.g., diaphragmatic breathing, rhythmic breathing), (b) progressive relaxation, (c) meditation, (d) imagery or visualization, and (d) cognitive techniques (e.g., thought stopping and cognitive restructuring).

Life skills refer to the mental, emotional, behavioral, and social skills and resources developed through sport participation.[34] Research in this area focuses on how life skills are developed and transferred from sports to other areas in life (e.g., from tennis to school) and on program development and implementation.[35] Burnout in sport is typically characterized as having three dimensions: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and a reduced sense of accomplishment.[36] Athletes who experience burnout may have different contributing factors, but the more frequent reasons include perfectionism, boredom, injuries, excessive pressure, and overtraining.[37] Burnout is studied in many different athletic populations (e.g., coaches), but it is a major problem in youth sports and contributes to withdrawal from sport. Parenting in youth sport is necessary and critical for young athletes. Research on parenting explores behaviors that contribute to or hinder children’s participation. For example, research suggests children want their parents to provide support and become involved, but not give technical advice unless they are well-versed in the sport.[38] Excessive demands from parents may also contribute to burnout.
So long as the therapist is trained and follows basic ethical norms, hypnotherapy is safe. Some people may feel dizzy or nauseous during or after being hypnotized. People who discuss traumatic memories may be subject to feelings of panic, flashbacks, or general feelings of anxiety, and the clinician or client may elect to discontinue treatment when symptoms are severe.
We’ve had the privilege of partnering with the following organizations to significantly impact their performance, culture and bottom-line results. While some of these corporations have directly hired us to work in an executive coaching or training capacity, others represent corporations in which one or more senior executives or partner-level leaders have hired us independently.
Hypnosis is defined as an altered state of awareness in which you appear to be asleep or in a trance. Clinical hypnosis may be used to treat certain physical or psychological problems. For instance, it is frequently used to help patients control pain. It is also used in a wide range of other conditions such as weight issues, speech disorders, and addiction problems.
How well hypnosis works to help people stop smoking depends on who you ask. Study results have been mixed. In 2010, a systematic review of published studies found that there wasn't enough evidence to support the use of hypnosis. Another review published in 2012 said that studies do support a possible benefit from the use of hypnosis. In discussing alternative methods for quitting smoking on its web site, the American Cancer Society says that while controlled studies have not supported the effectiveness of hypnosis, there is anecdotal evidence that some people have been helped.
Youth sport refers to organized sports programs for children less than 18 years old. Researchers in this area focus on the benefits or drawbacks of youth sport participation and how parents impact their children’s experiences of sporting activities. In this day and age, more and more youth are being influenced by what they see on TV from their sport idols. For that reason it is not rare to see a seven-year-old play acting in a game of soccer because they are being socially influenced by what they are seeing on TV.

Many patients will be in pain and have a loss of appetite after surgery.[25] Part of the body's response to surgery is to direct energy to wound healing, which increases the body's overall energy requirements.[25] Surgery affects nutritional status indirectly, particularly during the recovery period, as it can interfere with wound healing and other aspects of recovery.[25][29] Surgery directly affects nutritional status if a procedure permanently alters the digestive system.[25] Enteral nutrition (tube feeding) is often needed.[25] However a policy of 'nil by mouth' for all gastrointestinal surgery has not been shown to benefit, with some suggestion it might hinder recovery.[37]
Based on this definition, sports psychologists can participate in various activities, mostly focused on working to understand what motivates athletes and how athletes can improve their performance. These activities can range from counseling athletes who might have anxiety issues that hamper their performance to instructing athletes (individually or in groups) on methods of mental conditioning (e.g., visualization, concentration and relaxation) to helping athletes deal with injuries. To put all of this in another way, a sport psychologist is working from the perspective that success in sports relies on both the body and mind. To add one other important point, sports psychologists are often found working with elite athletes—Olympians and professionals. However, sports psychologists can be found working with athletes at all levels as well as with coaches and sports administrators.
According to Dr. Clifford N. Lazarus, speaking for Psychology Today, hypnosis is a “genuine psychological phenomenon that has valid uses in clinical practice … hypnosis is a state of highly focused attention or concentration, often associated with relaxation, and heightened suggestibility. While under hypnosis (i.e., in a hypnotic trance), it seems many people are much more open to helpful suggestions than they usually are.” The suggestions made in a therapeutic setting get deep into a person’s brain, beyond their conscious thinking, leading to behavior change and the ability to overcome challenges that might otherwise seem insurmountable.
For many years I have tried various methods of giving up smoking – none worked – then I tried your self hypnosis CD for 7 days. I found it very relaxing and coupled with the use of nicotine replacement products (patches and nasal spray) I succeeded for a continuous 7 months without any discomfort. Unfortunately, I have found that hypnosis needs to be topped up at regular intervals to last and this I did not do. I needed and still need to ‘quit the weed’ for health reasons and intend to recommence the self hypnosis course again in the very near future. Where I had failed before was a lack of resolve or in other words will power. By using the self hypnosis CD I found I was easily able to allow my subconscious to dictate whether I smoked or not, rather than use will power which I have in little resource. All in all I would thoroughly recommend the use of this self hypnosis treatment to give up smoking, provided you’re prepared to top up the hypnosis periodically.

A typical hypnotherapy session has the patient seated comfortably with their feet on the floor and palms on their lap. Of course, the patient could choose to lie down if that option is available and if that will meet the patient's expectation of hypnosis. The therapist can even set the stage for a favorable outcome by asking questions like, "Would you prefer to undergo hypnosis in this chair or on the sofa?" Once patients make the choice, they are in effect agreeing to undergo hypnosis. Depending on the approach used by the therapist, the next events can vary, but generally will involve some form of relaxing the patient. Suggestions will lead the patient to an increasingly relaxed state. The therapist may wish to confirm the depth of trance by performing tests with the patient. For example, the therapist may suggest that when the eyes close that they will become locked and cannot be opened. The therapist then checks for this by having patients try to open their eyes. Following a successful trial showing the patient's inability to open the eyes, the therapist might then further relax them by using deepening techniques. Deepening techniques will vary for each patient and depend largely on whether the patient represents information through auditory, visual, or kinesthetic means. If the patient is more affected by auditory suggestions, the therapist would use comments such as "You hear the gentle patter of rain on the roof;" or, "The sound of the ocean waves allow you to relax more and more." For the visual person, the therapist might use statements such as, "You see the beautiful placid lake, with trees bending slightly with the breeze." Finally, with the kinesthetic person phrases such as, "You feel the warm sun and gentle breeze on your skin," could be used. It is important for the therapist to know if the patient has difficulty with the idea of floating or descending because these are sometimes used to enhance the experience for the patient. However, if the patient has a fear of heights or develops a feeling of oppression with the thought of traveling downward and going deeper and deeper, suggestions implying the unwanted or feared phenomenon will not be taken and can thwart the attempt.
Just how expensive and time-consuming is executive coaching? Although there is tremendous variation in fees and arrangements among coaches, be prepared to pay a C-level coach what you pay your top attorney. If this seems excessive, consider that a coach must have the experience and expertise to quickly grasp a leader's situation, challenge assumptions and choices, and bring credible, fresh ideas to the table. Doing this with your best and brightest is not easy. And given the influence a coach can have on an executive's decisions and actions over the course of a typical six-to-12-month engagement involving bimonthly meetings, regular phone calls and e-mail check-ins, a bargain coach whose sophistication does not match the client's is a big mistake.
This CD is awesome!! I was never a believer in hypnotherapy in the past, but after my doctor told me I had to quit smoking, he suggested this CD. It is powerful!! Mark's voice is so soothing, and it is done in such a way to make you so relaxed that it is easy to just fall into his words. I have been able to cut back my smoking in half and I have only had the CD for 5 days. I am ready to set my quit date. You have nothing to lose and everything to gain by trying this. I have tried everything to help stop smoking and this was the first thing that I am actually seeing results. You can't go wrong with this purchase!!!
To best help their executives, companies need to draw on the expertise of both psychotherapists and executive coaches with legitimate skills. At a minimum, every executive slated to receive coaching should first receive a psychological evaluation. By screening out employees not psychologically prepared or predisposed to benefit from the process, companies avoid putting executives in deeply uncomfortable—even damaging—positions. Equally important, companies should hire independent mental health professionals to review coaching outcomes. This helps to ensure that coaches are not ignoring underlying problems or creating new ones, as Nelson did.
interpersonal communication. They need to deepen the social and emotional intelligence that are so essential in executive leadership roles. They need to pay closer attention to nonverbal communication as manifested in their body language, tone of voice, and facial expression. They need to improve their stress management skills, so that they don’t come across to others as frustrated, irritable, or dismissive.

Performance Consultants pioneered coaching in business over 30 years ago and continues to lead the field globally, providing executive coaching, leadership development, team development and coaching skills training for leaders and managers around the world. Through coaching interventions and our unique evaluation methods we help individuals focus on current and future achievements in a way that builds awareness of strengths, establishes personal responsibility and results in behaviour change that impacts the bottom-line.


Some sport psychologists might also work closely with once enthusiastic athletes that have suffered injuries as well. Depending on the severity of the injury, a sport psychologist may attempt to help a recovering athlete segue back into his career with as little stress as possible. Some athletes don't have this choice, however, and they may need the help of a sport psychologist to help them deal with the fact that they may not be able to play their sport with as much talent and drive as they had at one time.
What’s especially compelling about investments in executive coaching is the fact that, when executed properly, there’s an associated ripple effect. A 2013 study by Anthony Grant found that executives who received coaching experienced effects that transferred over into the executives' family life, including heightened work–life balance and improved relationships with family members. It has also been my clients’ experience that for every executive coached, hundreds of others are positively affected, including their manager, their peers, their direct reports, and those employees’ direct reports as well. This extends to hundreds of people, and even more if one counts customers.
"I understand that thinking about talking to someone can be an anxiety provoking process - I will work with you to provide a nonjudgmental environment where we can safely discuss and explore your concerns, whatever they may be. I will help you better understand the connections between past experiences and your current difficulties, which I believe can ultimately lead to you having a more fulfilling life."

Nadine Greiner, Ph.D. is the CEO of On Target Solutions, which provides full-suite contemporary Organization Development Solutions.  Dr. Greiner teaches in masters and doctoral programs, coaches and trains other consultants, and wrote The Art of Executive Coaching.  Since she first served as a CEO at the age of 38, she understands leaders’ experience first-hand.  Nadine Greiner offers her clients the expertise that comes along with 30 years of consulting success, and a dual Ph.D. in Organization Development and Clinical Psychology.  She loves animals and Zumba.
Criticism — A tenet of motivational theory that is necessary to improve performance. The proper delivery of that criticism is imperative, as criticism can either better performance or drastically worsen it. There are three types of criticism: Destructive, Self, and Constructive. The best method of delivering constructive criticism is the "sandwich" approach; here, one first offers a compliment, then offers and critical feedback and useful directions to improve in that particular area, and then end with another compliment.
Even though you appear to be in a trance during hypnosis, you are not unconscious. You are still aware of your surroundings, and -- despite what many stage performers may claim during an entertaining show -- you cannot be made do to anything against your will. In fact, brain tests performed on patients during hypnotism sessions have shown a high level of neurological activity.

This is the ability to plan and maintain one's regular schedule in a way that avoids confusion, conflict and undue stress. Common time management techniques include: (a) teaching how to use a planner, (b) learning about the demands of a task, (c) setting legitimate goals for tasks, (d) understanding the demands of one’s life (managing role conflict), and (e) developing pre–performance routines.


People come to coaching for several reasons: They could be “stuck” and can’t think of what else to do in order to move the organization forward; there may not be anyone at their level that they can have confidential conversations with, or they believe if they were to change/improve something within themselves, the greater organization would benefit. Maybe they are ready to do something different but are not sure what that “something” is. Perhaps they are looking for change, a different perspective, or have important goals to reach.  Executive or “business” coaching focuses on helping individuals go from where they are, to where they want themselves and their company to be.
Well, like most smokers you almost certainly have much more of a psychological dependence on smoking than a physical one. Over time, the psychological habits relating to smoking become thoroughly ingrained at a subconscious level. Smoking cessation products such as pills, patches and gum can provide relief from the physical side-effects of nicotine withdrawal, but they do not address the psychological issues that prevent or discourage people from quitting.
8.Throughout the day take two to three long and deep breaths as often as you remember to. It is holding the breath that causes tension in ex-smokers. Many people who stop smoking also stop deep inhalation – make sure you don’t.  Remember the only relaxing thing about smoking is the belief that it is relaxing and the deep drawing and exhaling while smoking.
I chose the University of Ottawa in Canada for my Master’s in Sport Psychology for 2 main reasons. One of the most experienced, forerunners of Sport Psychology, Dr. Terry Orlick, is a professor at U of O. I had a conversation with him prior to applying, and he offered to be my thesis advisor, so at that point the program at University of Ottawa became the only choice for me.
Thanks so much for your lovely review. I would like to point out you saved yourself by making the decision to become a non-smoker! So thank yourself as well. I am so glad making that powerful decision opened other doors of self-fulfillment for you--it often does. It is my joy that I was part of that wonderful experience for you. Thank you for letting me be of service:) Best--Rita Read more
You will be told to sit or lie down somewhere, get comfortable and close your eyes. The hypnotherapist will then use their methods to get you in a a trance like suggestable state. This has been quite nicely described as feeling similar to the state of mindlessness people occasionally experience when driving a car without consciously thinking, just much more relaxed.
When Garvin was confronted by a second decline in sales, this one precipitated by the FNG syndrome, he had no idea that Nelson’s activities had caused the problem. In fact, because he believed that Nelson was expert in all matters of personnel functioning and efficiency, Garvin increased his reliance on his friend’s counsel. He had become a victim of what, in the language of psychiatry, is called “transference”—a dynamic that gave Nelson extraordinary psychological power over Garvin.
Upon receiving your graduate degree, you will see there are a lot of options for you as far as jobs. These include being a faculty member at university where you would teach and conduct research. You could work at a hospital, physical rehabilitation center, or gym. There are job possibilities with the military, given their concern with keeping troops mentally fit for battle. Finally, you might decide to open your own practice, where you can work with individual athletes and/or teams. Your private practice might even lead to working with individuals you might not typically think of as athletes. This could include dancers, or even those in the business world who may be dealing with high-pressure jobs. As far as what you will earn in a job, collegeatlas.com lists the mean salary for a sports psychologist at $57,000. However, I have seen higher estimates when reading various Internet sites about sports psychology.
Of course, hypnosis is not magic and everyone responds differently. It should also be noted that when it comes to hypnotherapy, it’s the therapy part of the equation that really counts. So by choosing this professionally produced hypnotherapy recording you will be giving yourself every chance of success. From the comfort of your own home, you can start to teach your subconscious exactly how you want to be – forever, finally, and completely free of the smoking habit!
Sports psychology is a combination of several disciplines within psychology and sports science. Aspiring graduates can take various pathways in their education as well as in their career. Employment opportunities in sports psychology may involve counseling/therapy, teaching, coaching, research, and others. While a bachelor's degree in sports psychology (or a double major in psychology and a sports-related subject) may open some employment opportunities, most entry-level and higher jobs in this field require a graduate degree.
But conflating hypnosis with sleep (the word is derived from the Greek for sleep), is inaccurate, according to the hypnotist and author Charles Tebbetts, as relayed by his student C. Roy Hunter in his book The Art of Hypnosis: Mastering Basic Techniques. Hypnotism “is actually a natural state of mind and induced normally in everyday living much more often than it is induced artificially. Every time we become engrossed in a novel or a motion picture, we are in a natural hypnotic trance,” Tebetts wrote.  Hunter writes that it's more accurate to say that all hypnosis is actually self-hypnosis. The hypnotherapist, much like a physical trainer then, is merely helping the subject convince themselves to do something they were already capable of doing, nudging them in the right direction.
To investigate the effectiveness of cognitive hypnotherapy (CH), hypnosis combined with cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), on depression, 84 depressives were randomly assigned to 16 weeks of treatment of either CH or CBT alone. At the end of treatment, patients from both groups significantly improved compared to baseline scores. However, the CH group produced significantly larger changes in Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory, and Beck Hopelessness Scale. Effect size calculations showed that the CH group produced 6%, 5%, and 8% greater reduction in depression, anxiety, and hopelessness, respectively, over and above the CBT group. The effect size was maintained at 6-month and 12-month follow-ups. This study represents the first controlled comparison of hypnotherapy with a well-established psychotherapy for depression, meeting the APA criteria for a "probably efficacious" treatment for depression.
Hypnotherapy has been used to stop self-destructive and addictive habits like smoking. It has also been used to curb the urge to eat for overeaters, to stem the disruptive actions of tics, cure insomnia , stop bed-wetting, and minimize anxiety. Excessive stress can be generated from any number of sources and can be the springboard for anxiety. Some of the more prominent sources of anxiety and stress for which people seek hypnotherapy are: public speaking, test taking, and job stress. Hypnotherapy also works well for other anxiety disorders such as phobias and has proven to be an effective treatment for mild to moderate depression. In one study, hypnotherapy was used in conjunction with traditional cognitive therapy, to assist persons who had severe aversion to needles. The treatment was necessary, because it was essential that each participant receive periodic medical injections. However, the participants would have become non-compliant without the adjunct intervention of hypnotherapy. In another case, involving care for terminally ill cancer patients, it was concluded that hypnotherapy was more effective at enhancing quality of life and relieving anxiety and depressive symptoms, when compared to others who received traditional care.
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