Motivational climate refers to the situational and environmental factors that influence individuals' goals.[39] The two major types of motivational climates coaches can create are task-oriented and ego-oriented. While winning is the overall goal of sports competitions regardless of the motivational climate, a task-orientation emphasizes building skill, improvement, giving complete effort, and mastering the task at hand (i.e., self-referenced goals), while an ego-orientation emphasizes demonstrating superior ability, competition, and does not promote effort or individual improvement (i.e., other-referenced goals). Effective coaching practices explore the best ways coaches can lead and teach their athletes. For examples, researchers may study the most effective methods for giving feedback, rewarding and reinforcing behavior, communicating, and avoiding self-fulfilling prophecies in their athletes.[40]
Sports psychology is an interdisciplinary practice that explores the link between psychological and physical factors affecting performance in competitive sports and athletic activity. This specialty incorporates the science of physiology, kinesiology and biomechanics to assist sports psychologists in treating a wide range of mental health issues commonly experienced by athletes and sports industry professionals in a clinical setting.
Sports psychologists are hired by athletic teams and schools. A sampling of employers posting on the Association for Applied Sport Psychology website in late 2013 reveals a wide variety of organizations: Western State Colorado University, Bridgewater State University, K-State Athletics, the New York Mets. Perusing postings gives a sense of what top facilities are looking for (http://www.appliedsportpsych.org/resource-center/employment-opportunities).
Sports lovers will likely find the field of sports psychology interesting, but choosing it as a career involves practical considerations—in other words, what’s the job outlook, and what’s the bottom line? As with most jobs, financial compensation largely depends on experience and education level, but as a growing field, sports psychologists have a generally good outlook.
Practice, practice, practice. Get in with different consultants and see what they’re doing. Work with younger athletes on their mental game using your own experiences to start developing your models. Volunteer to be the mental coach of a youth team based on your credentials as an athlete. And keep reading and applying what you read to your own competitive experience. Keep being an athlete and test your skills on yourself first.
Identify Your Personal Vulnerabilities: All of us tend to develop a “cover story” along the course of our lives - what I called the narrower, “false” self in a previous post - beneath which is our “secret plot” - the real story, including our emotional blind spots, fears and pockets of dysfunctional behavior that can become hidden drivers of our lives. How can you rectify and grow through them?
In some countries, there is no certification or licensing required to be a business or executive coach, and membership of a coaching organization is optional. Further, standards and methods of training coaches can vary widely between coaching organizations. Many business coaches refer to themselves as consultants, a broader business relationship than one which exclusively involves coaching.[18]
Griffith opened an athletic research laboratory at the University of Illinois in 1925. In 1925 he published an article, 'Psychology and Its Relation to Athletic Competition,' which is considered one of his most important works/writings. He also published a couple of textbooks, namely Psychology of Coaching and Psychology and Athletes. Griffith's progress was stunted when his lab was shut down in 1931 at the beginning of the Great Depression.
Thanks for your article Nadine. There is now further evidence of the Coaching Ripple Effect in the groundbreaking research by Dr Sean O’Connor & Dr Michael Cavanagh (2013). They are in fact colleagues of Tony Grant at the University of Sydney. To give a balanced view, Tony’s article on ROI as a poor measure of coaching success (2012) is also worth a read.

Sports psychology seems like a vital component of getting athletes in the right mindset for optimal performance and well-being, and its benefits were first being realized in the early-to-mid 1900s. The history of sports psychology began with experiments and research of athlete's performance to provide enhanced mental edge to compliment physical ability.


10. Positive Images: When your are exercising, use your positive mental images throughout your workout to create feelings of speed and power. (e.g., If you’re walking or running and you come to an unexpected hill visualize a magnet pulling you effortlessly to the top). Use visualization before, during and after your training to build confidence and new motivation.
^ Jump up to: a b c d Grant, Anthony M.; Cavanagh, Michael J. (2011). "Coaching and Positive Psychology: Credentialing, Professional Status, and Professional Bodies". In Sheldon, Kennon M.; Kashdan, Todd B.; Steger, Michael F. Designing Positive Psychology: Taking Stock and Moving Forward. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 295–312. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195373585.003.0019. ISBN 9780195373585. OCLC 610144651.
It is pertinent to mention that the practice of applied sport psychology is not legally restricted to individuals who possess one type of certification or licensure. The subject of "what exactly constitutes applied sport psychology and who can practice it?" has been debated amongst sport psychology professionals, and as of 2011, still lacks formal legal resolution in the United States. For instance, some question the ability of professionals who possess only sport science or kinesiology training to practice "psychology" with clients, while others counter that clinical and counseling psychologists without training in sport science do not have the professional competency to work with athletes. However, this debate should not overshadow the reality that many professionals express the desire to work together to promote best practices among all practitioners, regardless of training or academic background.
Weight loss, in the context of medicine, health, or physical fitness, refers to a reduction of the total body mass, due to a mean loss of fluid, body fat or adipose tissue or lean mass, namely bone mineral deposits, muscle, tendon, and other connective tissue. Weight loss can either occur unintentionally due to malnourishment or an underlying disease or arise from a conscious effort to improve an actual or perceived overweight or obese state. "Unexplained" weight loss that is not caused by reduction in calorific intake or exercise is called cachexia and may be a symptom of a serious medical condition. Intentional weight loss is commonly referred to as slimming.

4. Pain as Effort: If you have “good pain,” the pain of effort, that is not seriously damaging your body, just shift attention to your breathing or cadence of movement, and let the discomfort fade into the background. You can also use the pain as feedback. Register it not as pain but as effort level. Say: “Now I know exactly how hard I’m working. I know how this pace feels. My body is doing what it should be doing.”

Performance Consultants specializes in evaluating the impact of coaching engagements and estimating the return on investment (ROI). We use our in-house coaching evaluation tool, Coaching for Performance ROI, to measure the baseline at the outset of the coaching relationship and the growth and development that has occurred during the coaching sessions. Depending on the position of the coachee within the organization, it is possible to trace the impact to the bottom line – see the easyJet Case Study for example. Please note that the confidentiality of the coaching is not compromised through this method.


Being able to focus one’s awareness on relevant cues so they can deal effectively with their current situation. These skills help them maintain their mental intensity within a situation. Common techniques include: (a) attention control training (to avoid distractions) and (b) techniques to expand awareness (e.g., attending to performance cues and bodily sensations).
Had Mirabella’s coach been less sports driven—or better versed in interpersonal psychology—he could have anticipated that all the learned bravado in the world could never prepare Mirabella for the role he was assigned to fill. Mirabella needed someone who would listen to his fears and analyze their origins. In the end, Mirabella could function effectively only if his advancement was predicated on his own desires and leadership style—not on someone else’s. Once he was able to deal with his inner conflicts related to those issues, Mirabella’s career proceeded without incident.

Psychiatric research is produced in vast quantities today, but we remain far from the answers we are seeking. Although promising leads exist, the fact remains that the field has not reached a consensus on the biological etiology of any mental illness. Similarly, there are fewer clearly defined treatment algorithms in psychiatry than in other medical specialties.


Weight gain has been associated with excessive consumption of fats, (added) sugars, refined carbohydrates in general, and alcohol consumption.[citation needed] Depression, stress or boredom may also contribute to weight increase,[citation needed] and in these cases, individuals are advised to seek medical help. A 2010 study found that dieters who got a full night's sleep lost more than twice as much fat as sleep-deprived dieters.[5][6]
The BLS reports that the job outlook is best for sports psychologists with a doctoral degree in their specialty. Positions for potential psychologists with master's degrees are limited and candidates may face intense competition for the available jobs. Sports psychologists with master's degrees may expect to work as assistant counselors or in research positions, directly supervised by licensed psychologists. Time spent volunteering with sports teams or interning under the supervision of sport and exercise psychology professionals may also be helpful in obtaining full-time positions.
Both views reflect CEOs’ perceptions. But those, in turn, reflect the failure of coaching programs to show that the infrastructure of successful leadership vision and behavior is heightened self-awareness about one’s motives, values, and personality traits. That’s especially true within today’s challenging, fluid environment. Because of this failure, coaching programs unknowingly collude with CEOs’ view that self-awareness is either irrelevant to leadership or of minor importance.
Professionals in this area may also counsel other facilitators of youth sports, including coaches and parents, to help build a positive support system around child players and teams. Sports psychologists may use psychometric testing to assess issues, as well as psychotherapeutic anxiety-reduction and stress-management techniques to treat young clients.
An obvious area is volleyball and beach volleyball athletes, given that those were my sports. I’m also an expert at working with youth up-and-coming athletes, starting as young as nine years of age. I really enjoy working with athletes on the origin of their fear and providing tools for them to breakthrough whatever it is that’s preventing them from getting to the next level in their sport.
Dr. Banks teaches Bush how to calm his anxiety and stress before a game with deep breathing exercises and meditation. He even gives Bush a CD with a guided imagery exercise on it that will take him to his 'happy place' (his cabin in the mountains) for 10 minutes to get into a relaxed mindset. These techniques also help Bush cope with the pressures from family, friends, coaches, and the sports organization of which he is a part.

During a hypnotherapy session, the therapist will bring you into a state of deep relaxation in which the critical, conscious part of your brain recedes and the subconscious mind becomes alert and focused. The therapist will make suggestions, based on your intended goals, that will take root in your subconscious mind. These suggestions should affect your thinking in a positive way and empower you to make change.

One obvious risk to patients is the insufficiently trained therapist. The inadequately trained therapist can cause harm and distort the normally pleasant experience of hypnotherapy. A second risk for patients is the unscrupulous practitioner who may be both inadequately trained and may have some hidden agenda. These rare individuals are capable of causing great harm to the patient and to the profession. As mentioned above, the patient should carefully scrutinize their chosen therapist before submitting themselves to this dynamic form of therapy.
Applied Sports Psychologists instruct individual athletes and sports teams on the various methods of mental conditioning, including visualization, concentration and relaxation techniques. Many sports psychologists work onsite with sports teams alongside coaches, trainers and managers. Others practice independently and perform consulting services on an as-needed basis.
For many people, playing sports is a fun way to stay fit, and compete with friends and peers. A select few might also make a pretty decent living by playing professional sports. But what makes some strive to play sports, to compete? What makes some push themselves to their limits for nothing more than the satisfaction of winning? How does playing sports affect people mentally and emotionally?
While coaching has become a recognized intervention, sadly there are still no standards or licensing arrangements which are widely recognized. Professional bodies have continued to develop their own standards, but the lack of regulation means anyone can call themselves a coach. [...] Whether coaching is a profession which requires regulation, or is professional and requires standards, remains a matter of debate.

The U.S. Department of Health & Human Services recognizes the healing power of hypnosis and its proven effectiveness for anxiety, pain control, smoking cessation, headaches and more. Hypnosis may be safe and complementary way to augment medical attention you are receiving for a chronic illness or pain, or a way to resolve an addiction or phobia that you are otherwise unable to control. Hypnosis does not work on every person. When scientists began studying hypnosis in earnest, a report published by Stanford University titled “The Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale” demonstrated that different brains respond to hypnosis in varying degrees, and a very few do not respond at all. Working with a trained psychologist, you’ll soon determine whether you are a good candidate for the healing benefits of hypnotherapy.


It’s important to know how the individual likes to be rewarded, and then respect his/her wishes. (It’s the platinum rule, Do unto others as they would have done unto them.) Don’t assume that how you would like to be recognized is how they would like to be recognized. Some people thrive on public recognition, while others prefer to be recognized privately. When in doubt, just ask.

His coach challenged him to identify what was important and align his behaviors accordingly. With his coach’s help, Jagtiani redesigned his life. “I’ve been asked to join the senior partner ranks several times, but I’ll only consider it after my daughter is in college, and I have a year to support my wife in finding her next chapter.” For the first time, Jagtiani said he feels aligned. “I can feel the difference in the way clients trust me. They know what they see is what they get.”
Griffith opened an athletic research laboratory at the University of Illinois in 1925. In 1925 he published an article, 'Psychology and Its Relation to Athletic Competition,' which is considered one of his most important works/writings. He also published a couple of textbooks, namely Psychology of Coaching and Psychology and Athletes. Griffith's progress was stunted when his lab was shut down in 1931 at the beginning of the Great Depression.
Garvin was under the gun during this difficult time, so he skipped the usual steps and sought the services of an executive coach on his own. He picked someone he knew well: Karl Nelson, whom Garvin had worked with at a major consulting firm when they were both starting their careers as freshly minted MBAs. Garvin thought he could trust Nelson to help manage his COO’s anger and to mentor him through the storm. He also liked the sound of Nelson’s coaching approach. It was based on a profiling system that diagnosed managers’ strengths and weaknesses and charted career tracks that would optimize individual managers’ productivity. This system was similar to the Myers-Briggs inventory, with many of psychologist Abraham Maslow’s self-actualization principles thrown in. Garvin believed that Nelson and his system could help the COO.

In FY2009, DAU launched an initiative to train and qualify a cadre of experienced acquisition practitioners to serve as executive coaches. Using a refined, proven coaching model/process, we’ve continued to train and qualify 58 internal coaches, who have engaged over 360 defense acquisition workforce (DAW) leaders and received great results and feedback. To complement this one-on-one and team coaching, our leadership development courses, including our Leader as Coach course, have reached over 5,500 leaders and supervisors. These collective efforts emphasize the responsibilities of each leader to develop, coach, and mentor members of their workforce, while creating a long-term culture change, future business successes, and a learning enterprise.


Although both the organization and the executive must be committed to coaching for it to be successful, the idea to engage a coach can originate from either HR and leadership development professionals or from executives themselves. In the past, it has more often sprung from the organizational side. But given the growing track record of coaching as a tool for fast movers, "We see more executives choosing coaching as a proactive component of their professional life," says Cheryl Leitschuh, a leadership development consultant with RSM McGladrey (Bloomington, Minnesota).
According to many sources including the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) which is part of the United States National Library of Medicine and a branch of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), hypnosis is scientifically proven to help relieve both mental challenges and physical pains. Hypnosis can alleviate stress and reduce pain after surgeries, has been shown to relieve anxiety in children in the emergency room, and can be useful for managing pain associated with everything from arthritis to migraines. Hypnosis is non-invasive and gives you a way to control pain or discomfort that might otherwise seem out of your hands. Hypnosis shouldn’t be used as a substitute for medical care, but may be an excellent complementary tool that is best provided by a trained therapist or licensed medical provider. The University of Maryland Medical Center shares many conditions for which hypnosis can be useful:
Writing a review on behalf of my wife who had a smoking cessation session with Rita 6 months ago. 6 months on and she's not had a single cigarette and doesn't even think about them. From going to a pack a day to nothing really is truly amazing and it's down to one hour long session with Rita. I was initially fairly sceptical about hypnotherapy and its effectiveness but I am now completely converted. Amazing results and highly recommended if you want to stop smoking.
Self-talk refers to the thoughts and words athletes and performers say to themselves, usually in their minds. Self-talk phrases (or cues) are used to direct attention towards a particular thing in order to improve focus or are used alongside other techniques to facilitate their effectiveness.[61] For example, a softball player may think "release point" when at bat to direct her attention to the point where the pitcher releases the ball, while a golfer may say "smooth stroke" before putting to stay relaxed. Research suggests either positive or negative self-talk may improve performance, suggesting the effectiveness of self-talk phrases depends on how the phrase is interpreted by the individual.[62] However, the use of positive self-talk is considered to be more efficacious[63] and is consistent with the associative network theory of Gordon Bower[64] and the self-efficacy tenet within the broader Social Cognitive Theory of Albert Bandura.[65][66] The use of words in sport has been widely utilized. The ability to bombard the unconscious mind with one single positive phrase, is one of the most effective and easy to use psychological skills available to any athlete.
I'm excited to share what I've learned from amazing leaders, from other inspiring coaches, by applying solid social science, and by making plenty of mistakes. We coaches, too, need a daily dose of Seneca. We can always keep getting better at helping leaders get better. And leaders who want to do even better can make the world even better. So, whether you're coaching leaders formally or informally, or if you want to apply to yourself what's proven to work for senior leaders everywhere, join me in my LinkedIn learning course on executive coaching.

To investigate the effectiveness of cognitive hypnotherapy (CH), hypnosis combined with cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), on depression, 84 depressives were randomly assigned to 16 weeks of treatment of either CH or CBT alone. At the end of treatment, patients from both groups significantly improved compared to baseline scores. However, the CH group produced significantly larger changes in Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory, and Beck Hopelessness Scale. Effect size calculations showed that the CH group produced 6%, 5%, and 8% greater reduction in depression, anxiety, and hopelessness, respectively, over and above the CBT group. The effect size was maintained at 6-month and 12-month follow-ups. This study represents the first controlled comparison of hypnotherapy with a well-established psychotherapy for depression, meeting the APA criteria for a "probably efficacious" treatment for depression.
Americans are snacking more than ever, so making smart snacking choices are key to achieving your weight loss goals. Aim for snacks that satisfy by choosing foods that provide a mix of protein and fiber, stabilizing blood sugar levels and keeping hunger at bay. An apple and almond butter, a plain yogurt with berries, or high-fiber crispbread crackers and hummus can all be smart snacking options. For example, two Wasa Flax Seed crispbread crackers combined with two tablespoons of hummus provide 4 grams of protein and 4 grams of fiber for staying power. For an added boost, add a few teaspoons of hot sauce. Research shows spicy foods may help speed up metabolism and curb appetite.
In 1923, Griffith developed and taught the first sports psychology university courses (“Psychology and Athletics”) at the University of Illinois, and he came to be known as “The Father of Sports Psychology” in the United States, as a result of his pioneering achievements in that area. However, he is also known as “The prophet without disciples”, since none of his students continued with sports psychology, and his work started to receive attention only from the 1960s [13]

Weight loss occurs when the body is expending more energy in work and metabolism than it is absorbing from food or other nutrients. It will then use stored reserves from fat or muscle, gradually leading to weight loss. For athletes seeking to improve performance or to meet required weight classification for participation in a sport, it is not uncommon to seek additional weight loss even if they are already at their ideal body weight. Others may be driven to lose weight to achieve an appearance they consider more attractive. However, being underweight is associated with health risks such as difficulty fighting off infection, osteoporosis, decreased muscle strength, trouble regulating body temperature and even increased risk of death.[3]

Skill used to help improve group cohesion and individual interactions in a sport setting (e.g., athlete–athlete, athlete–coach, coach–parent). Techniques used with this skill include: (a) teaching active listening and communicating skills (reflecting, clarifying, encouraging, paraphrasing), (b) helping individuals create a free and open environment, and (c) assertiveness training.
Hypnosis is first and foremost a self-accepted journey away from the reality of the moment. Although the trance state is often referred to as if the patient is asleep, nothing could be further from the truth. The patient is fully awake at all times. The hypnotic subject is simply in a heightened, more receptive state of mind. This fact is proven with inductions called open-eye techniques, where the patient keeps his/her eyes open during the hypnotherapy. Full and deep trance is still achievable.
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