With the emphasis on sports and exercise in society, it’s no wonder that sports psychology is a growing specialty within the broader field psychology. Sports psychologists examine the interrelation between human psychology and athletic performance, applying their skills and knowledge to enhance performance and maximize the benefits of physical activity.
Her boss presumed Mansfield was having an assertiveness problem, so he hired a coach from a consulting firm that specialized in behavioral treatments to work with her. The coach assumed that Mansfield needed to learn to set limits, to constructively criticize her subordinates, and to avoid the trap of doing other people’s work for them. Within two months of what her coach deemed successful training, Mansfield began to lose weight, grow irritable, and display signs of exhaustion. At the time, I happened to be coaching the software company’s COO, and he asked me to talk to her. It didn’t take long to see how assertiveness training had unearthed a problem Mansfield had managed to keep under wraps for years.
Some therapists use hypnosis to recover possibly repressed memories they believe are linked to the person's mental disorder. However, the quality and reliability of information recalled by the patient under hypnosis is not always reliable. Additionally, hypnosis can pose a risk of creating false memories -- usually as a result of unintended suggestions or the asking of leading questions by the therapist. For these reasons, hypnosis is no longer considered a common or mainstream part of most forms of psychotherapy. Also, the use of hypnosis for certain mental disorders in which patients may be highly susceptible to suggestion, such as dissociative disorders, remains especially controversial.
Sports lovers will likely find the field of sports psychology interesting, but choosing it as a career involves practical considerations—in other words, what’s the job outlook, and what’s the bottom line? As with most jobs, financial compensation largely depends on experience and education level, but as a growing field, sports psychologists have a generally good outlook.
While coaching has become a recognized intervention, sadly there are still no standards or licensing arrangements which are widely recognized. Professional bodies have continued to develop their own standards, but the lack of regulation means anyone can call themselves a coach. [...] Whether coaching is a profession which requires regulation, or is professional and requires standards, remains a matter of debate.
Sports psychology began with research on sports performance with psychologist and researchers Norman Triplett (cyclists are speedier in competition than when they ride solo) and Walter Miles (studied reaction time of football players to increase their reaction time after the ball hike). The person who was considered the first sports psychologist was Coleman Griffith. Today, most professional teams employ sports psychologists to assist players with mental health, performance, and well-being.
Thomas works in partnership with psychologists, so that they are trained to administer our assessments and deliver valuable feedback to the rest of the organisation. This approach will enable them to build on their detailed knowledge of the athletes, coaches, sport and organisation so that feedback is unique and based on a high level of relevant content.
Criticism — A tenet of motivational theory that is necessary to improve performance. The proper delivery of that criticism is imperative, as criticism can either better performance or drastically worsen it. There are three types of criticism: Destructive, Self, and Constructive. The best method of delivering constructive criticism is the "sandwich" approach; here, one first offers a compliment, then offers and critical feedback and useful directions to improve in that particular area, and then end with another compliment.
Executive coaches are at their most dangerous when they win the CEO’s ear. This puts them in a position to wield great power over an entire organization, a scenario that occurs with disturbing frequency. Since many executive coaches were corporate types in prior lives, they connect with CEOs far more readily than most psychotherapists do. They are fluent in business patois, and they move easily from discussions of improving an individual’s performance to conducting interventions that can help entire business units capture or retain market share. Unless these executive coaches have been trained in the dynamics of interpersonal relations, however, they may abuse their power—often without meaning to. Indeed, many coaches gain a Svengali-like hold over both the executives they train and the CEOs they report to, sometimes with disastrous consequences.
10. Positive Images: When your are exercising, use your positive mental images throughout your workout to create feelings of speed and power. (e.g., If you’re walking or running and you come to an unexpected hill visualize a magnet pulling you effortlessly to the top). Use visualization before, during and after your training to build confidence and new motivation.
There is an intense mental toll of reaching—and remaining—at the pinnacle of a sport. “The top six inches of the body matter just as much the rest,” says Matthew Cunliffe, a sports psychologist, who spoke with Quartz about what goes through the minds of elite athletes and how psychologists can help them win. The conversation has been edited and condensed for clarity.
The BLS reports that the job outlook is best for sports psychologists with a doctoral degree in their specialty. Positions for potential psychologists with master's degrees are limited and candidates may face intense competition for the available jobs. Sports psychologists with master's degrees may expect to work as assistant counselors or in research positions, directly supervised by licensed psychologists. Time spent volunteering with sports teams or interning under the supervision of sport and exercise psychology professionals may also be helpful in obtaining full-time positions.
Unlike psychologists or psychotherapists, ADHD coaches do not provide any therapy or treatment: their focus is only on daily functioning and behaviour aspects of the disorder. The ultimate goal of ADHD coaching is to help clients develop an "inner coach", a set of self-regulation and reflective planning skills to deal with daily life challenges. A 2010 study from Wayne State University evaluated the effectiveness of ADHD coaching on 110 students with ADHD. The research team concluded that the coaching "was highly effective in helping students improve executive functioning and related skills as measured by the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory (LASSI)." Yet, not every ADHD person needs a coach and not everyone can benefit from using a coach.
"It is my belief that psychotherapy has the best chance to be effective when the client and therapist have a strong therapeutic alliance. That is, they have a good working relationship and are working toward exactly the same goals using methods or approaches best suited for the client. I strive to achieve this by providing a warm and safe climate, listening closely to the needs of my clients, and discussing our options and strategies."
Some sport psychologists might also work closely with once enthusiastic athletes that have suffered injuries as well. Depending on the severity of the injury, a sport psychologist may attempt to help a recovering athlete segue back into his career with as little stress as possible. Some athletes don't have this choice, however, and they may need the help of a sport psychologist to help them deal with the fact that they may not be able to play their sport with as much talent and drive as they had at one time.
"Are you overwhelmed by your stress, emotions, or current ways of thinking? Maybe you are struggling with anxiety, depression, a romantic or family relationship, decision, or difficult adjustment/transition period? Regardless of what you are facing, I work from a belief that all people have resilience to face life's challenges-and my role is to help you find that strength within yourself. With every client, I am genuinely interested in learning more about you and how I can be most helpful-which means I will use an individualized/customized approach, as opposed to a "one-size fits all" treatment."
Hypnosis is not a silver bullet, of course. Several years ago, Nelson, a 39-year-old banker from New York City, attended a group hypnosis session in Boston with several friends who were also trying to quit smoking, and they were all hypnotized en masse. He says, “ didn’t crave cigarettes for a good four months afterwards. Something in my mind turned it off: didn’t want it, didn’t need it.” Then, after a minor car accident, he ran to the corner bodega to grab a pack. “I smoked to calm myself down,” he recalls. While the hypnosis was effective, Nelson felt like his choice to smoke or not smoke was being dictated not by him but by an outside force in a way that made him uncomfortable. He has no plans to try hypnosis again.
Griffith began offering the first course in sports psychology in 1923, and later published the first book on the subject titled The Psychology of Coaching (1926). Unfortunately, Griffith’s lab was closed in 1932 due to lack of funds. After the lab was shut down, there was very little research on sports psychology until the subject experienced a revival of interest during the 1960s.
In North America, early years of sport psychology included isolated studies of motor behavior, social facilitation, and habit formation. During the 1890s, E. W. Scripture conducted a range of behavioral experiments, including measuring the reaction time of runners, thought time in school children, and the accuracy of an orchestra conductor's baton. Despite Scripture's previous experiments, the first recognized sports psychology study was carried out by an American psychologist Norman Triplett, in 1898. The work of Norman Triplett demonstrated that bicyclists were more likely to cycle faster with a pacemaker or a competitor, which has been foundational in the literature of social psychology and social facilitation. He wrote about his findings in what was regarded as the first scientific paper on sports psychology, titled “The Dynamogenic Factors in Pacemaking and Competition”, which was published in 1898, in the American Journal of Psychology. Research by ornithologists Lashley and Watson on the learning curve for novice archers provided a robust template for future habit formation research, as they argued that humans would have higher levels of motivation to achieve in a task like archery compared to a mundane task. Researchers Albert Johanson and Joseph Holmes tested baseball player Babe Ruth in 1921, as reported by sportswriter Hugh S. Fullerton. Ruth's swing speed, his breathing right before hitting a baseball, his coordination and rapidity of wrist movement, and his reaction time were all measured, with the researchers concluding that Ruth's talent could be attributed in part to motor skills and reflexes that were well above those of the average person.
Thanks for this article, Nadine. Well said. In my experiences working with executives in my communication capacity, I can usually tell which have been exposed to coaching. They are consistent in their approaches and often have methods for stress reduction that they regularly employ. Their teams often reflect their approach so good executive coaching leads to better team response and production. I am looking forward to reading your book.
A 2007 study from researchers at the American College of Chest Physicians compared hypnosis to nicotine replacement therapy. Fifty percent of patients who were treated in the hypnotherapy group were still quit at 26 weeks compared to just 15.78 percent in the nicotine replacement group. Patients who underwent NRT and hypnotherapy also experienced a 50-percent success rate at 26 weeks.
While cardio burns calories as you work out, strength training will help you burn more calories even while you rest. “The beautiful thing about strength training is that not only do you get sculpted and toned muscles, but the more muscle you have, the faster your metabolism is,” says Hoff. A faster metabolism means more calories burned, and in turn faster weight loss. Hoff says incorporating strength training two to three times a week is ideal. “No need for heavy weights; you can build muscle by using your own body weight and exercise bands.”
Positive psychology is the scientific study of what's right with people, of what makes people thrive and flourish. In the coming years, executive coaches will be using the scientific principles of positive psychology to help their clients create more positive, more productive, and more profitable workplaces, and also apply these principles to their own lives. - Laura Belsten, CEO PARTNERSHIP
Sports psychologists may also pursue voluntary certification. This does not confer the legal right to practice, but does demonstrate expertise in a specialty area. Sports psychology professionals at both the master's and doctoral levels are eligible to become Certified Consultants (CC-AASP) through the Association for Applied Sport Psychology (http://www.appliedsportpsych.org/certified-consultants/become-a-certified-consultant).
I have a BSc. in Human Kinetics and a Master’s of Arts in Human Kinetics concentrated in Sport Psychology, which I completed over 10 years after earning my BSc. In those 10 years, I competed for Canada on the World Beach Volleyball Tour. Having been a lifelong competitive athlete, I discovered first-hand the need to train the mind alongside the body. My national team coach once said to me “Kara, you make the hard stuff look easy and the easy stuff look hard,” and it was true. The easier it was, the more time I had to think about it.
Jump up ^ The accreditation criteria and the structure of the accreditation system were based on those described in Yeates, Lindsay B., A Set of Competency and Proficiency Standards for Australian Professional Clinical Hypnotherapists: A Descriptive Guide to the Australian Hypnotherapists' Association Accreditation System, Australian Hypnotherapists' Association, (Sydney), 1996. ISBN 0-646-27250-0  Archived 2009-09-12 at the Wayback Machine.