Sport psychology (or sports psychology) is the study of the psychological and mental factors that affect and are affected by participation and performance in sport, exercise, and physical activity. It is also a specialization within the brain psychology and kinesiology that seeks to understand psychological/mental factors that affect performance in sports, physical activity, and exercise and apply these to enhance individual and team performance. It deals with increasing performance by managing emotions and minimizing the psychological effects of injury and poor performance. Some of the most important skills taught are goal setting, relaxation, visualization, self-talk, awareness and control, concentration, confidence, using rituals, attribution training, and periodization.
I've been a smoker for 45+ years, tried quiting with the patch, Chantix, other hypnotist with zero… I've been a smoker for 45+ years, tried quiting with the patch, Chantix, other hypnotist with zero results. One afternoon with Rita and my wife, my mother-in-law and myself have all been non-smokers for six months today!  Best money I have ever spent.  I AM A NON-SMOKER AND WILL BE A NON-SMOKER FOR THE REST OF MY LIFE!  Thank you Rita! Read more
Skill used to help improve group cohesion and individual interactions in a sport setting (e.g., athlete–athlete, athlete–coach, coach–parent). Techniques used with this skill include: (a) teaching active listening and communicating skills (reflecting, clarifying, encouraging, paraphrasing), (b) helping individuals create a free and open environment, and (c) assertiveness training.
These are highly important findings, because empathy, compassion and overall self-awareness are qualities of a developed, mature mind. One that’s resilient to stress, able to manage internal conflicts, experiences interconnection with others, and maintains well-being. And, that therefore stimulates broad perspectives for understanding the problems and unpredictable challenges facing CEOs.
In today’s demanding business environment (cost pressures leading to flatter organizations, executive managers with more direct reports, “speed to market” as a competitive advantage with time pressure, etc.) executives have limited opportunity to devote time and energy to their own development as leaders. “Most executives struggle to fulfill the responsibilities of their positions and are too busy and too stressed to step back and learn from their experiences or to implement changes to satisfy best management practices.”[3]
A commonly overlooked obstacle to eating better (and losing weight) is sleep. While sleep needs vary, according to the National Sleep Foundation, adults require seven to nine hours a night. Unfortunately, two-thirds of people report experiencing sleep problems at least a few nights a week, with women more prone to sleep problems than men. A review study that looked at 36 studies on sleep and weight gain found short sleep duration was independently linked to weight gain. Studies show the fewer minutes you spend asleep, the more likely you are to feel hungrier and make poor food choices the next day. Make sure you’re getting enough Zzzzs to reap the rewards of your weight loss efforts.

In 1996, as a result of a three-year research project led by Lindsay B. Yeates, the Australian Hypnotherapists Association[48] (founded in 1949), the oldest hypnotism-oriented professional organization in Australia, instituted a peer-group accreditation system for full-time Australian professional hypnotherapists, the first of its kind in the world, which "accredit[ed] specific individuals on the basis of their actual demonstrated knowledge and clinical performance; instead of approving particular 'courses' or approving particular 'teaching institutions'" (Yeates, 1996, p.iv; 1999, p.xiv).[49] The system was further revised in 1999.[50]
Applied sport psychology is the study and application of psychological principles of human performance in helping athletes consistently perform in the upper range of their capabilities and more thoroughly enjoy the sport performance process. Applied sport psychologists are uniquely trained and specialized to engage in a broad range of activities including the identification, development and execution of the mental and emotional knowledge, skills and abilities required for excellence in athletic domains; the understanding, diagnosing and preventing of the psychological, cognitive, emotional, behavioral and psychophysiological inhibitors of consistent, excellent performance; and the improvement of athletic contexts to facilitate more efficient development, consistent execution and positive experiences in athletes.
“Unlike therapy, which goes into depth about various issues usually dealing with the past and consulting which generally results in giving the client answers, coaching is more action-oriented and focuses primarily on the present and future.”[2] Coaching focuses on what the client wants and utilizes a process through the one-on-one coaching sessions to enable the client to self-discover, learn and determine their own “answers”. It is the client who determines the goals and commits to their goal, while allowing the coach to help hold them accountable.

We’ve had the privilege of partnering with the following organizations to significantly impact their performance, culture and bottom-line results. While some of these corporations have directly hired us to work in an executive coaching or training capacity, others represent corporations in which one or more senior executives or partner-level leaders have hired us independently.
I have no prior experience with hypnosis.  I went into this with no expectations, but I did have the willingness to quit smoking.  I have tried nicoderm patches, nicoderm gum, Chantix, Wellbutrin, cold turkey, weaning off, etc...for the last two years.  The most I ever got were 28 agonizing days.  The cravings never went away.  Then I met with Rita Black and here I am 6 weeks later to share how amazed I am with the success of our 1 meeting!  I walked out of Rita's office a non-smoker in every way.  Rita explained to me how to manage the "cravings" if and when they come.  I have totally regained my power against smoking.  I highly recommend this life saving service (not to mention, financial savings).
The answer is simple: Executive coaches offer seemingly quick and easy solutions. CEOs tell me that what they fear most about psychotherapy is not the cost in dollars but the cost in time. A coaching engagement typically lasts no more than six months. Psychotherapy, by contrast, is seen as a long-term treatment; people joke that it takes six months for therapist and patient just to say hello. What’s more, therapy requires a greater time commitment than the standard 50-minute sessions; it also involves travel to and from the therapist’s office, taking even more time away from work.
Some sport psychologists might also work closely with once enthusiastic athletes that have suffered injuries as well. Depending on the severity of the injury, a sport psychologist may attempt to help a recovering athlete segue back into his career with as little stress as possible. Some athletes don't have this choice, however, and they may need the help of a sport psychologist to help them deal with the fact that they may not be able to play their sport with as much talent and drive as they had at one time.

While the findings about the efficacy of hypnosis on smoking are often murky, studies on the matter have shown increasingly positive results. Even Matt Damon and Charlize Theron have gotten in on the act. And the folks offering the service aren’t bearded men dangling pocket watches and telling you how heavy your eyelids are getting, or seeing patients in dingy basements outfitted with lava lamps and burning incense. Rather they’re people with advanced degrees who practice in the same kinds of clinics where you’d see your shrink or your ophthalmologist; rates usually start at around $80 per hour and can go as high as $200 (most practitioners recommend between one and four sessions).
The services of an Executive Coach can be engaged to support a Board President in building and empowering the board to clarify and accomplish its mission. Mentorship may also come from an experienced past board president—either at your organization or at another organization who can share their experience and lessons learned. Executive recruiters who specialize in placement of board members will likely know or have access to many such individuals. A coach is different than a mentor in that the coach helps YOU determine the solutions that are going to work best by asking the right questions and probing in the right places, layering in advice only after the have helped you to come up with the solution on your own, and will likely have facilitation abilities to work with the board as a group. You can find an Executive Coach through referrals, or by conducting an internet search for coaches in your area, or through professional associations.
Since the mid-1990s, coaching professional associations such as the Association for Coaching (AC), the European Mentoring and Coaching Council (EMCC), the International Association of Coaching (IAC), and the International Coach Federation (ICF) have worked towards developing training standards.[1]:287–312[26] Psychologist Jonathan Passmore noted in 2016:[1]:3
There is an intense mental toll of reaching—and remaining—at the pinnacle of a sport. “The top six inches of the body matter just as much the rest,” says Matthew Cunliffe, a sports psychologist, who spoke with Quartz about what goes through the minds of elite athletes and how psychologists can help them win. The conversation has been edited and condensed for clarity.

Coaching is a form of development in which a person called a coach supports a learner or client in achieving a specific personal or professional goal by providing training and guidance.[1] The learner is sometimes called a coachee. Occasionally, coaching may mean an informal relationship between two people, of whom one has more experience and expertise than the other and offers advice and guidance as the latter learns; but coaching differs from mentoring in focusing on specific tasks or objectives, as opposed to more general goals or overall development.[1][2][3]
Applied Sports Psychologists instruct individual athletes and sports teams on the various methods of mental conditioning, including visualization, concentration and relaxation techniques. Many sports psychologists work onsite with sports teams alongside coaches, trainers and managers. Others practice independently and perform consulting services on an as-needed basis.

Sports psychologists in the U.S. comprise a niche within a broad category that also includes social and forensic psychologists, among other less populated specialties. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, sports psychologists are expected to grow in number by 11% nationwide from 2012 to 2022. This category of psychologists can expect to see approximately 1,400 new jobs by 2022, according to BLS projections.
Not all CEOs experience transference. Even so, coaches can easily expand their influence—from training to all-purpose advising—because CEOs don’t like to lose face. Company leaders understand what coaches do and often feel personally responsible for selecting them. As a result, they feel more accountable for their coaches’ successes or failures than they would if a psychotherapist were assigned to the case. In the same vein, when the CEO personally endorses a business plan, a number of psychological factors conspire to make it difficult to abandon that plan. Garvin was confronted with that situation when he authorized systemwide use of Nelson’s personnel development procedures.
Margaret, a 90-year old (not a typo!) musician from Manhattan, has been tobacco-free for a whopping 26 years, after a pack-a-day smoking career that spanned six decades. She’d quit before, cold turkey, but lasted only two days before she relapsed. Years later, she decided to try hypnosis at the recommendation of a trusted friend. “It wasn’t scary,” she remembers. “I was quite unaware that I was being hypnotized. The hypnosis was just deep enough for everything she said to take root. She told me that I shouldn’t ever touch another cigarette, not to think I can smoke and get away with it, and that one cigarette can restart the addiction over again. It was very easy. I was really quite surprised.” Margaret hasn’t taken a puff since.
People may undergo hypnosis in order to address all manner of problems—from addictions, like mine, to emotional trauma. There’s some evidence that it could be an effective tool in dentistry, treating eating disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder, and helping with pain during childbirth. But despite its prevalence, there's still ample confusion about what it actually is, sometimes even among those who've already committed to it. I certainly had no idea what I was in for as I relaxed into my superlatively uncomfortable chair, ready for, well, something. Or maybe nothing.
Ajay Jagtiani, a principal with Miles and Stockbridge, had just hired a coach to help him navigate the environment at his new law firm when he had a heart attack. He had planned to use the coach to adapt to the new culture, decode political factions and crush it on the way to becoming managing partner. The heart attack changed everything. “I was young enough to survive it, but old enough to appreciate it,” he explained.
A study of 286 smokers compared the effectiveness of hypnosis versus behavioral counseling when both interventions were combined with nicotine patches. At 6 months, 26% of the participants in the hypnosis group were abstinent compared with 18% of the behavioral group. At 12 months, the abstinence rate was 20% for the hypnosis group compared to 14% for the behavioral group. It was concluded that, for long-term quit rates, hypnosis compares favorably to standard behavioral counseling when used with nicotine patches.

Some exercise and sport psychology professionals are also licensed psychologists, who are doctorally trained individuals who have met their state's educational and training requirements and passed a comprehensive exam. These psychologists undergo specialized postdoctoral training in how to optimize athletes' performance and well-being. Only licensed psychologists may call themselves psychologists. 

Coachability, in my opinion, is the number-one success factor to consider. The reason is that no matter how experienced or effective the coach might be, no change of the executive (coachee) will occur if the executive does not want to change, recognize the need to change, or does not take responsibility for the change needed. The executive needs to be open to feedback, willing to use the feedback to commit to change, and be willing to be held accountable to the commitment.


Hypnosis is not a silver bullet, of course. Several years ago, Nelson, a 39-year-old banker from New York City, attended a group hypnosis session in Boston with several friends who were also trying to quit smoking, and they were all hypnotized en masse. He says, “ didn’t crave cigarettes for a good four months afterwards. Something in my mind turned it off: didn’t want it, didn’t need it.” Then, after a minor car accident, he ran to the corner bodega to grab a pack. “I smoked to calm myself down,” he recalls. While the hypnosis was effective, Nelson felt like his choice to smoke or not smoke was being dictated not by him but by an outside force in a way that made him uncomfortable. He has no plans to try hypnosis again.

If he becomes defensive, don’t defend your feedback or get combative—just notice his behaviors and get curious about what is going on for him. Show empathy for how he is feeling. For example, “You just crossed your arms tightly and got very tense—I can imagine this doesn’t feel good. What are you thinking right now?” Engage in dialogue while upholding your expectations of him.
Although both the organization and the executive must be committed to coaching for it to be successful, the idea to engage a coach can originate from either HR and leadership development professionals or from executives themselves. In the past, it has more often sprung from the organizational side. But given the growing track record of coaching as a tool for fast movers, "We see more executives choosing coaching as a proactive component of their professional life," says Cheryl Leitschuh, a leadership development consultant with RSM McGladrey (Bloomington, Minnesota).
A sport psychologist might use a number of different methods to help athletes who need to overcome certain problems. For instance, they will often lend a non-judgmental ear to frustrated and overwhelmed athletes; sometimes, just the act of talking about certain negative situations can be all that's necessary to overcome them. Most times, however, a sport psychologist will offer advice and guidance on how to overcome these problems. He may recommend a little rest and relaxation for the burnt out athlete, or he might teach an overly anxious athlete several different relaxation exercises to perform before each game or match. He might teach an athlete visualization techniques or how to tune out distractions.

"When going out for fast food, I used to get the large-size value meal. Now, I satisfy a craving by ordering just one item: a small order of fries or a six-piece box of chicken nuggets. So far, I've shaved off 16 pounds in seven weeks, and I'm on track to being thinner than my high school self for my 10-year reunion later this year." —Miranda Jarrell, Birmingham, AL
October 20, 2017 - At the annual conference of the Association of Applied Sport Psychology (AASP), Center faculty, current doctoral students, and alumni had a reunion dinner to reconnect and make new connections among the many generations that were in attendance.  Pictured are (from left in front row):  Dr. Robert Harmison (James Madison University), Dr. Nick Beck (private practice, Pensacola FL), and Karolina Wartolowicz (third year doctoral student); (from left in the back row):  Carlie McGregor (third year doctoral student), Dr. Joey Raemaker (University of Notre Dame), Dr. Trent A. Petrie (UNT Center Director, Tess Palmateer (second year doctoral student), Andrew Walsh (first year doctoral student), Alan Chu (fifth year doctoral student), and Dr. Brian Yu (UC Davis).
"FMI's Executive Coaching provides opportunities for key leaders to identify specific areas of focus and work one on one with a coach to become stronger leaders. The personal time investment can be significant, but the potential benefits to the individual and firm makes FMI's coaching an incredibly valuable tool. FMI took great care in understanding the firm's needs as well as my personal development goals in matching me to a coach that worked with me to maximize the benefits of this coaching. "

Even when coaches adopt a more empirically validated approach than McNulty did, they still tend to fall into the trap of treating the symptoms rather than the disorder. That’s because they typically derive their treatments from behavioral psychology. Of course, behaviorism has been a great boon to psychiatry in recent years. Findings from this discipline have helped people enormously in controlling specific behaviors and learning to cope in particular situations. But treatments derived from behavioral psychology are sometimes too limited to address the problems that disrupt executives’ ability to function.
My uncle was once hypnotized to stop smoking. He was so successful he was put on a billboard testimonial “I told my children when I die throw in all my cigarettes and don’t forget to throw in the lighter”. Thanks to your stop smoking hypnosis I too have been smoke free for 3 months now after smoking 2 packs a day. Please use this as a testimonial! It really does work!!
Sports lovers will likely find the field of sports psychology interesting, but choosing it as a career involves practical considerations—in other words, what’s the job outlook, and what’s the bottom line? As with most jobs, financial compensation largely depends on experience and education level, but as a growing field, sports psychologists have a generally good outlook.
Most organizations believe that once someone reaches executive or senior status in the organization, they should inherently be able to act under pressure, inspire and implement ideas, keep their skills sharp and current, and have all the answers. In actuality, they can eventually get there on their own but the engagement of a qualified executive coach will exponentially increase not only the time it takes for the executive to get there but also the ability for the executive and the company to sustain the change.

No matter what the industry, leadership development challenges are common across all business and practice settings. There are universal principles of leadership that can be flexibly adapted to different situations. In my work with Leading Minds, I’ve helped high-level clients confronting complex leadership challenges in a wide diversity of businesses and professions, including the following: biotech, Pharma, healthcare, engineering, software, law, financial services, private equity, manufacturing, food services, family businesses, higher education, and nonprofits. Contact me to discuss the possibility of launching a coaching engagement with Leading Minds.


10. Positive Images: When your are exercising, use your positive mental images throughout your workout to create feelings of speed and power. (e.g., If you’re walking or running and you come to an unexpected hill visualize a magnet pulling you effortlessly to the top). Use visualization before, during and after your training to build confidence and new motivation.

As an interdisciplinary subject, exercise psychology draws on several different scientific fields, ranging from psychology to physiology to neuroscience. Major topics of study are the relationship between exercise and mental health (e.g., stress, affect, self-esteem), interventions that promote physical activity, exploring exercise patterns in different populations (e.g., the elderly, the obese), theories of behavior change, and problems associated with exercise (e.g., injury, eating disorders, exercise addiction).[76][77]

Republic of Ireland: There are few graduate and no undergraduate programmes in Ireland offering specialised degrees in sports psychology. However, psychology is one of the professions listed for statutory registration with the relevant registration board of the Health and Social Care Professionals Council. The title of the profession is protected by law and can only be used by registered practitioners.
Consider Rob Bernstein. (In the interest of confidentiality, I use pseudonyms throughout this article.) He was an executive vice president of sales at an automotive parts distributor. According to the CEO, Bernstein caused trouble inside the company but was worth his weight in gold with clients. The situation reached the breaking point when Bernstein publicly humiliated a mail clerk who had interrupted a meeting to get someone to sign for a parcel. After that incident, the CEO assigned Tom Davis to coach Bernstein. Davis, a dapper onetime corporate lawyer, worked with Bernstein for four years. But instead of exploring Bernstein’s mistreatment of the support staff, Davis taught him techniques for “managing the little people”—in the most Machiavellian sense. The problem was that, while the coaching appeared to score some impressive successes, whenever Bernstein overcame one difficulty, he inevitably found another to take its place.
The landscape of leading organizations is changing, and more companies are turning to coaches to increase their effectiveness and sustainability. To meet that demand, our Certificate in Executive Coaching takes an innovative approach to developing the skills students need to improve the performance and satisfaction of individuals and teams to achieve organizational goals.
Hypnotism was one of the earliest psychoanalytic techniques employed by Sigmund Freud, who was introduced to the technique by physician Josef Breuer. Freud and Breuer believed that traumatic memories that were not accessible to the waking mind could be revealed while a person was under hypnosis, thus facilitating a “cure.” Freud eventually abandoned hypnosis in favor of forced association, and then free association, after he found that not all of his patients responded to hypnotism.
Due to the increase in certified coaches, the improved ROI that results from pairing coaching with leadership training, and the normalization of coaching rates due to a supply and demand shift in the market, coaching will become more commonly used in employee and leadership development at all levels. Coaching will no longer be viewed as something that is only available at the executive level. - Amy Douglas, Spark Coaching, LLC

For many years I have tried various methods of giving up smoking – none worked – then I tried your self hypnosis CD for 7 days. I found it very relaxing and coupled with the use of nicotine replacement products (patches and nasal spray) I succeeded for a continuous 7 months without any discomfort. Unfortunately, I have found that hypnosis needs to be topped up at regular intervals to last and this I did not do. I needed and still need to ‘quit the weed’ for health reasons and intend to recommence the self hypnosis course again in the very near future. Where I had failed before was a lack of resolve or in other words will power. By using the self hypnosis CD I found I was easily able to allow my subconscious to dictate whether I smoked or not, rather than use will power which I have in little resource. All in all I would thoroughly recommend the use of this self hypnosis treatment to give up smoking, provided you’re prepared to top up the hypnosis periodically.


“We brought Performance Consultants International in to Mubadala to help us launch and deliver an Executive Coaching programme to the top tiers of our organization. We maintained constant contact throughout the set-up phase. We had a true partnership with Performance Consultants who helped us every step of the way, from concept to launch to implementation and ongoing tracking. The launch event wildly exceeded expectations and the ongoing support I needed was always there. I wouldn’t hesitate in recommending them for an Executive Coaching framework in any ambitious organization”
And whereas coaching was once viewed by many as a tool to help correct underperformance, today it is becoming much more widely used in supporting top producers. In fact, in a 2004 survey by Right Management Consultants (Philadelphia), 86 percent of companies said they used coaching to sharpen the skills of individuals who have been identified as future organizational leaders.
One thing I struggle with today is cravings. I love chocolate and sweets, and oddly enough, I get through those cravings by baking. I’ll bake cookies or other desserts and bring them to school or to my friends and family so that they can enjoy. This way, I can get a little taste and yet don’t have to face constant temptation. It also helps that they enjoy my baking so much and are always grateful when I bring something over.
Life skills refer to the mental, emotional, behavioral, and social skills and resources developed through sport participation.[34] Research in this area focuses on how life skills are developed and transferred from sports to other areas in life (e.g., from tennis to school) and on program development and implementation.[35] Burnout in sport is typically characterized as having three dimensions: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and a reduced sense of accomplishment.[36] Athletes who experience burnout may have different contributing factors, but the more frequent reasons include perfectionism, boredom, injuries, excessive pressure, and overtraining.[37] Burnout is studied in many different athletic populations (e.g., coaches), but it is a major problem in youth sports and contributes to withdrawal from sport. Parenting in youth sport is necessary and critical for young athletes. Research on parenting explores behaviors that contribute to or hinder children’s participation. For example, research suggests children want their parents to provide support and become involved, but not give technical advice unless they are well-versed in the sport.[38] Excessive demands from parents may also contribute to burnout.
Hypnotism was one of the earliest psychoanalytic techniques employed by Sigmund Freud, who was introduced to the technique by physician Josef Breuer. Freud and Breuer believed that traumatic memories that were not accessible to the waking mind could be revealed while a person was under hypnosis, thus facilitating a “cure.” Freud eventually abandoned hypnosis in favor of forced association, and then free association, after he found that not all of his patients responded to hypnotism.

Exercise specialists, athletic trainers, youth sport directors, corporations, and psychologists who are using knowledge and techniques developed by professionals in the field of applied sport and exercise psychology to assist with improving exercise adherence, rehabilitating injuries, educating coaches and parents, building self-esteem, teaching group dynamics, and increasing effectiveness.

The U.S. Department of Health & Human Services recognizes the healing power of hypnosis and its proven effectiveness for anxiety, pain control, smoking cessation, headaches and more. Hypnosis may be safe and complementary way to augment medical attention you are receiving for a chronic illness or pain, or a way to resolve an addiction or phobia that you are otherwise unable to control. Hypnosis does not work on every person. When scientists began studying hypnosis in earnest, a report published by Stanford University titled “The Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale” demonstrated that different brains respond to hypnosis in varying degrees, and a very few do not respond at all. Working with a trained psychologist, you’ll soon determine whether you are a good candidate for the healing benefits of hypnotherapy.


Self-talk refers to the thoughts and words athletes and performers say to themselves, usually in their minds. Self-talk phrases (or cues) are used to direct attention towards a particular thing in order to improve focus or are used alongside other techniques to facilitate their effectiveness.[61] For example, a softball player may think "release point" when at bat to direct her attention to the point where the pitcher releases the ball, while a golfer may say "smooth stroke" before putting to stay relaxed. Research suggests either positive or negative self-talk may improve performance, suggesting the effectiveness of self-talk phrases depends on how the phrase is interpreted by the individual.[62] However, the use of positive self-talk is considered to be more efficacious[63] and is consistent with the associative network theory of Gordon Bower[64] and the self-efficacy tenet within the broader Social Cognitive Theory of Albert Bandura.[65][66] The use of words in sport has been widely utilized. The ability to bombard the unconscious mind with one single positive phrase, is one of the most effective and easy to use psychological skills available to any athlete.
Like any long-term abusive relationship, the abused (you) doesn't feel like they are being abused until they can take a step back and see what is really going on. Hypnosis is highly effective at getting you to change your perspective, and when you are able to see the relationship between yourself and the cigarettes objectively, your feelings about smoking will change radically.
Hypnotherapy expert, Dr Peter Marshall, former Principal of the London School of Hypnotherapy and Psychotherapy Ltd. and author of A Handbook of Hypnotherapy, devised the Trance Theory of Mental Illness, which provides that people suffering from depression, or certain other kinds of neurosis, are already living in a trance and so the hypnotherapist does not need to induce them, but rather to make them understand this and help lead them out of it.[24]
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